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After several rounds of input, the decision was made to offer maximum armor to defeat the "heavy threat". To this end, a new design basis emerged in February , LK It had to defeat any hit from a Soviet gun within meters and 30 degrees to either side.
Examining the experiences of the Yom Kippur War that year, a number of design changes were made. At the time, the US military's procurement system was beset with problems being caused by the desire to have the best possible design.
This often resulted in the programs being canceled due to cost overruns, leaving the forces with outdated systems, as was the case with the MBT There was a strong movement within the Army to get a new design within budget to prevent the MBT experience from repeating itself.
Chrysler and GM entered bids. The Army was planning on introducing several new types of ammunition for the that would greatly improve its performance, notably, the XM using depleted uranium.
These rounds would give it the performance needed to defeat any Soviet tank with ease. There was some concern that depleted uranium would not be allowed in Germany, perhaps just in peacetime, so improvements to the tungsten cored M were also considered.
Through this same period, there was an ongoing effort to improve NATO logistics by standardizing ammunition to the maximum possible degree.
In this case, the would give them the performance needed to defeat such a development even without depleted uranium.
The turret designs of the two prototypes were modified to allow either gun to be fitted. First was due to the large number of M60 Patton tanks with the M68E1 gun still in widespread US service in the s and a large on-hand stockpile of mm munitions.
Fitting the M1 with the M68A1 gun was viewed as an economical and practical solution that allowed for commonality in ammunition among the two types of tanks.
They entered head-to-head testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground , along with a Leopard 2 "2K" prototype for comparison. The testing showed that the GM design was generally superior, offering better armor protection, and better fire control and turret stabilization systems.
These prototypes used a combination mount that allowed for the evaluation of both mm and mm guns. During testing, the power packs of both designs proved to have issues.
The Chrysler design used a gas turbine engine from Lycoming Engines , the AGT , which had extensive heat recovery systems in an attempt to improve its fuel economy to something similar to a traditional internal combustion engine.
This proved not to be the case; the engine consumed much more fuel than expected. The GM design used a new variable-compression Diesel design which proved to be problematic.
By the spring of , the decision to choose the GM design was largely complete. In addition to offering better overall performance, there were concerns about Chrysler's engine both from a reliability and fuel consumption standpoint.
In July , Lt. Colonel George Mohrmann prepared a stack of letters informing Congress of the decision to move ahead with the GM design. All that was required was the final sign-off by the Secretary of Defense , Donald Rumsfeld.
In January , a program was initiated  to develop an enhanced version of the mm gun, the M68A1  as a possible alternate weapon for the M1 Abrams.
They were surprised when Clements and Currie criticized their decision and demanded the turbine be selected. Donald Rumsfeld heard arguments from both in the afternoon and asked for twenty-four hours to review the issues.
The Army team spent the night writing briefs and presented them to Rumsfeld the next morning, who then announced a four-month delay.
Within days, GM was asked to present a new design with a turbine engine. According to Assistant Secretary for Research and Development Ed Miller, "It became increasingly clear that the only solution which would be acceptable to Clements and Currie was the turbine It was a political decision that was reached, and for all intents and purposes that decision gave the award to Chrysler since they were the only contractor with a gas turbine.
The turbine engine does not appear to be the only reason for this decision. Chrysler was the only company that appeared to be seriously interested in tank development; the M60 had been lucrative for the company and relied on that program for much of its profit.
A total of 3, M1 Abrams tanks were produced during — and first entered U. Army service in The tank featured the first of its kind Chobham armor.
The M1 Abrams was the first to use this advanced armor. It consisted of an arrangement of metal plates, ceramic blocks and open space. In , Project on Government Oversight in a report criticized the M1's high costs and low fuel efficiency in comparison with other tanks of similar power and effectiveness such as the Leopard 2.
The report was based on data from U. Army sources and the Congressional record. As the Abrams entered service in the s, they operated alongside M60A3 within the U.
The exercises were aimed at countering Soviet forces. A total of 23 M1A1s were damaged or destroyed during the war.
Of the nine Abrams tanks destroyed, seven were destroyed by friendly fire, and two were purposely destroyed to prevent capture after being damaged.
Very few M1 tanks were hit by enemy fire and none were destroyed as a direct result of enemy fire, none of which resulted in any fatalities.
This meant Abrams tanks could hit Iraqi tanks before the enemy got in range—a decisive advantage in this kind of combat. In friendly fire incidents, the front armor and fore side turret armor survived direct armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot APFSDS hits from other M1A1s.
This was not the case for the side armor of the hull and the rear armor of the turret, as both areas were penetrated on at least two occasions by unintentional strikes by depleted uranium ammunition during the Battle of Norfolk.
The M1A2 was a further improvement of the M1A1, with a commander's independent thermal viewer, weapon station, position navigation equipment, and a full set of controls and displays linked by a digital data bus.
These upgrades also provided the M1A2 with an improved fire control system. The development for the improved M1A3 variant has been known since Further combat was seen during when U.
During the invasion, at least nine Abrams tanks were put out of action by fire from rocket propelled grenades. Following lessons learned in Desert Storm, the Abrams and many other U.
These were fitted on the sides and rear of the turret, with flat panels equipped with a four-cornered 'box' image on either side of the turret front.
Some Abrams tanks were also fitted with a secondary storage bin on the back of the existing bustle rack on the rear of the turret referred to as a bustle rack extension to enable the crew to carry more supplies and personal belongings.
Several Abrams tanks that were irrecoverable due to loss of mobility or other circumstances were destroyed by friendly forces, usually by other Abrams tanks, to prevent their capture.
Some troops employed short-range anti-tank rockets and fired at the tracks, rear and top. Other tanks were put out of action by engine fires when flammable fuel stored externally in turret racks was hit by small arms fire and spilled into the engine compartment.
Vulnerabilities exposed during urban combat in the invasion of Iraq were addressed with the Tank Urban Survival Kit TUSK modifications, including armor upgrades and a gun shield, issued to some M1 Abrams tanks.
It added protection in the rear and side of the tank to improve fighting ability in urban environments. In May , it was reported that a U.
M1 tank had also been damaged in Iraq by insurgent fire of a Soviet-made RPG "Vampir", which uses a tandem-charge high explosive anti-tank warhead to penetrate explosive reactive armor ERA as well as composite armor behind it.
Between and the U. During three months, about one-third of the Iraqi Army's M1 tanks had been damaged or destroyed by ISIL and some were captured by opposing forces.
By December , the Iraqi Army only had about 40 operational Abrams left. That month, the U. Department of State approved the sale of another Abrams to Iraq.
Iranian-backed Iraqi Shiite Kata'ib Hezbollah Hezbollah Brigades reported to operate M1 Abrams, and released publicity showing the tanks being transported by trucks to take part in the battle of Mosul.
It is not known whether the tanks were captured from ISIS, seized from Iraq's military, or handed over.
One Iraqi-operated Abrams has been nicknamed "The Beast" after it became the lone working tank when taking back the town of Hit in April , destroying enemy fighting positions and IED emplacements.
It was claimed by Kurdish commanders that at least one Abrams was destroyed by the Peshmerga. Tanks may have limited utility in Afghanistan due to the mountainous terrain, although Canada and Denmark have deployed Leopard 1 and 2 MBTs that have been specially modified to operate in the relatively flat and arid conditions of southwestern Afghanistan.
In late , at the request of Regional Command Southwest , the U. The U. General Dynamics Land Systems GDLS , which operates the factory, opposed the move, arguing that suspension of operations would increase long-term costs and reduce flexibility.
Congress and General Dynamics were criticized for redirecting money to keep production lines open and accused of "forcing the Army to buy tanks it didn't need.
They contended that the move was to upgrade Army National Guard units to expand a "pure fleet" and maintain production of identified "irreplaceable" subcomponents; a prolonged shutdown could cause their makers to lose their ability to produce them and foreign tank sales were not guaranteed to keep production lines open.
There is still risk of production gaps even with production extended through ; with funds awarded before recapitalization is needed, budgetary pressures may push planned new upgrades for the Abrams from to In , the new administration made rebuilding the military a priority.
It was reported in that the Army had ordered tanks re-built to new standards with employment at over workers and expected to rise to 1, Prototypes were made but the program was canceled.
Engineering Change Proposal 1 is a two-part upgrade process. ECP1A adds space, weight, and power improvements and active protection against improvised explosive devices.
ECP1B, which will begin development in , may include sensor upgrades and the convergence of several tank round capabilities into a multi-purpose round.
Army Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Army vehicles. However, the Army anticipates that the remaining M1A1 fleet will remain in U. The M1A3 Abrams was in the early design period with the U.
Army in At that time, the service was seeking a lighter tank version with the same protection as current versions. It aimed to build prototypes by and begin fielding the first combat-ready M1A3s by Additionally an all new version for the U.
Army has been in planning and development for several years. Earlier U. The large white insignia stars have also transitioned to much smaller black markings.
Some units painted their M1s with the older Mobility Equipment Research and Design Command MERDC 4-color paint scheme but the turn-in requirements for these tanks required repainting them to overall forest green.
Therefore, even though a large number of the base model M1s were camouflaged in the field, few or none exist today. Some, but not all, of these tanks were re-painted to their "authorized" paint scheme.
M1A2s built for Middle Eastern countries were painted in desert tan. Replacement parts roadwheels, armor skirt panels, drive sprockets, etc.
Australian M1A1s were desert tan when delivered but have undergone a transition to the Australian Army vehicle standard 'Disruptive Pattern Camouflage'; a scheme that consists of black, olive drab, and brown.
Army can equip its Abrams tanks with the Saab Barracuda camouflage system , which provides concealment against visual, infrared, thermal infrared, and broad-band radar detection.
The turret is fitted with two six-barreled M smoke grenade launchers USMC M1A1s use an eight-barreled version , with one on each side.
When deployed, the grenades airburst , creating a thick smoke that blocks both visual and thermal imaging. The engine is also equipped with a smoke generator that is triggered by the driver.
When activated, fuel is sprayed into the hot turbine exhaust, creating the thick smoke. However, due to the change from diesel as a primary fuel to the use of JP-8 , this system is disabled on most Abrams tanks today because of a slightly elevated risk of fire damage to the engine compartment.
Baer to witness the progress of British developed Chobham armor. HEAT and sabot rounds enter the beginning layers of armor but are unable to penetrate the crew compartment.
Ceramics have the ability to absorb a great deal of heat, and can blunt physical blows by cracking and deflecting the force.
The remaining hot gasses and metal shrapnel spread out or settle in empty air pockets. Both contractors reevaluated their proposed armor configurations based upon the newly obtained data.
This led to major changes in the General Motors XM1. The most prominent of which is the turret front changing from vertical to sloped armor. The Chrysler XM1 on the other hand retained its basic shape although a number of changes were made.
The Ballistic Research Laboratory had to develop new armor combinations in order to accommodate the changes made by the contractors.
Similar to most other main battle tanks, the M1 Abrams feature composite armor only on the frontal aspect of the hull. However, the Abrams' turret features composite armoring across both the front and the sides.
In addition, the side skirts of the frontal half of the hull are also made of composite, providing superior ballistic protection against chemical energy munitions such as HEAT rounds.
The composition of the Abrams' composite armor consists of sandwiched plates of non-explosive reactive armor NERA between conventional steel plates.
The NERA plates feature elasticity, allowing them to flex and distort upon perforation, disrupting the penetrating jets of shaped charges and providing more material and space for a kinetic round to pass through, thus providing increased protection compared to conventional steel armor of similar weight.
For the base model M1 Abrams, Steven J. Armor protection was improved by implementing a new special armor incorporating depleted uranium and other undisclosed materials and layouts.
This new armor increased effective armor particularly against kinetic energy rounds  but at the expense of adding considerable weight to the tank, as depleted uranium is 1.
US-based tank battalions participating in Operation Desert Storm received an emergency program to upgrade their tanks with depleted uranium armor immediately before the onset of the campaign.
M1A2 tanks uniformly incorporate depleted uranium armor, and all M1A1 tanks in active service have been upgraded to this standard as well.
The M1A2 SEP variants have been equipped with third generation depleted uranium armor combined with a graphite coating.
The M1A2C also features increased physical line-of-sight turret armor. In , a program was begun to incorporate improved turret side armor into the M1A2.
This was intended to offer better protection against rocket-propelled grenades more modern than the baseline RPG These kits were installed on about older M1A2 tanks in and it was also included in upgraded tanks.
The Abrams may also be fitted with explosive reactive armor over the track skirts if needed such as the Tank Urban Survival Kit  and slat armor over the rear of the tank and rear fuel cells to protect against ATGMs.
Protection against spalling is provided by a kevlar liner. The tank has a halon firefighting system to automatically extinguish fires in the crew compartment.
The engine compartment has a firefighting system that is engaged by pulling a T-handle located on the left side of the hull.
The Halon gas can be dangerous to the crew. The crew compartment also contains small hand-held fire extinguishers. Fuel and ammunition are stored in armored compartments with blowout panels to protect the crew from the risk of the tank's own ammunition cooking off exploding if the tank is damaged—the main gun's ammunition is stored in the rear section of the turret, with blast doors that open under power by sliding sideways only to remove a round for firing, then automatically close.
Doctrine mandates that the ammunition door must be closed before arming the main gun. A tank's front armor is much stronger than that on the sides, top, or rear.
In an urban environment, attacks can come from any direction, and attackers can get close enough to reliably hit weak points in the tank's armor or gain sufficient elevation to hit the top armor.
Armor upgrades include reactive armor on the sides of the tank and slat armor similar to that on the Stryker on the rear to protect against rocket-propelled grenades and other shaped charge warheads.
An exterior telephone allows supporting infantry to communicate with the tank commander. The TUSK system is a field-installable kit that allows tanks to be upgraded without needing to be recalled to a maintenance depot.
While the reactive armor may not be needed in most situations, like those present in maneuver warfare , items like the rear slat armor, loader's gun shield, infantry phone which saw use on Marine Corps M1A1s as early as , and Kongsberg Remote Weapons Station for the Deliveries were expected to be completed by April On 8 December , the U.
However, the drawback to the system is that the ATGM is not destroyed, it is merely directed away from its intended target, leaving the missile to detonate elsewhere.
This device is mounted on the turret roof in front of the loader's hatch, and can lead some people to mistake Abrams tanks fitted with these devices for the M1A2 version, since the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer on the latter is mounted in the same place, though the MCD is box-shaped and fixed in place as opposed to cylindrical and rotating like the CITV.
In , the U. This gun used a license-made tube of the British Royal Ordnance L7 gun together with the vertical sliding breech block and other parts of the U.
TE2 prototype gun. However, it proved to be inadequate; a cannon with lethality beyond the 1. To attain that lethality, the projectile diameter needed to be increased.
Due to the increased calibre, only 40 or 42 rounds are able to be stored depending on if the tank is an A1 or A2 model. The MA1 fires a variety of rounds.
MA1, known as the "Silver Bullet", saw widespread service in the Gulf War, where it proved itself against Iraqi armor such as the T The Abrams uses a manual loader.
The tungsten balls can be used to clear enemy dismounts, break up hasty ambush sites in urban areas, clear defiles , stop infantry attacks and counter-attacks and support friendly infantry assaults by providing covering fire.
It is designed to destroy obstacles and barriers. The round is a modified MA1 with the front fuse replaced by a steel nose to penetrate into the obstacle before detonation.
Army Research Laboratory ARL conducted a thermal analysis of the M from to to evaluate the potential of using a hybrid barrel system that would allow for multiple weapon systems such as the XM Mid- Range munition, airburst rounds, or XM The test concluded that mesh density number of elements per unit area impacts accuracy of the M and specific densities would be needed for each weapon system.
Called the Advanced Multi-Purpose AMP round, it will have point detonation, delay, and airburst modes through an ammunition data-link and a multi-mode, programmable fuse in a single munition.
Having one round that does the job of four would simplify logistics and be able to be used on a variety of targets. The AMP is to be effective against bunkers, infantry, light armor, and obstacles out to meters, and will be able to breach reinforced concrete walls and defeat ATGM teams from to 2, meters.
After that Ganz was nominated to be the head of the foundry and the machine repairing yard. In , while he was working in the foundry, the cast splashed out.
He became blind in one of his eyes. According to some sources he said then:. The management of the steam mill paid a share of the profit to Ganz. He built his own foundry on this site and started to work there with seven assistants.
They made mostly casting products for the needs of the people of the city. He gave his brother, Henrik a job as a clerk, because of the growing administration work.
He made a profit in the first year, and his factory grew, even though he had not yet engaged in mass production.
He won the silver medaille of the exhibition committee and the bronze medaille from Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary.
During the Hungarian Revolution of to the foundry made ten cannons and many cannonballs for the Hungarian army. Because of this, the Military Court of Austria impeached him.
He got seven weeks in prison as penalty, but because of his Swiss citizenship he was acquitted of the charge. Ganz recognized that, to develop his factory, he had to make products that were mass-produced.
At that time, European foundries made wrought iron rims for spoked wagon wheels by pouring the casts in shapes in sand, and leaving them to cool down.
Meanwhile, in the United States and England a better method was being used. This was chill casting , which was invented by the Englishman John Burn in The essence of this process is to cool the cast faster.
The metal will then be harder, and have better wear-resistance. Ganz made one for the first time in and he was able to improve the method further by using antimony.
He got a patent for this invention in We grind it tiny and we make paint or dollop of it. We cover the walls of the casting shape with it, then we dry it and pull it together.
Finally, we heat it to degrees, and the liquid iron is poured into the mold. At the place where the mould walls are coated with said material, a glass hard crust is formed, which - depending on whether the wall of the cover is thinner or thicker - is two, three or four millimeters in thickness.
That is why I have found antimony the best material for the production In either case, jammers had to start from the back of the pack the whole group and work their way through, with the first jammer to break out winning the status of lead jammer.
The skaters then got one point for every opponent they successfully lapped. The lead jammer could cut off the jam early by placing their hands on their hips.
The last jam of the last period always went the full minute regardless of what the period clock showed. At the referee's discretion, skaters would sit in a penalty box for violating the rules for various reasons, from jams, or face immediate disqualification ejection from the game.
Skaters frequently racked up these penalties and were willing to take it if they felt it would bring them a moral victory. The team with the most points won the game.
If the game was tied in regulation, originally the genders would continue to alternate in sudden death overtime periods until there was a clear winner.
As this could go on for a considerable and indefinite period of time, it was soon replaced one skater from each team facing off in a "Tiebreaker Match Race", five laps around the track and whoever crossed the finish line first won the game for their team.
In addition, special features which were not directly part of the matches would occasionally pop up:. Another unique concept was that RollerJam held special games, races and competitions in certain episodes, such as:.
Other characters included Julie Amazon a bodybuilding skater in Season 4 , Canine and Disable minions of The Prophet who skated for the Sundogs, and "captured" Lindsay Francis during the first game of Season 4 ,Devo a convict character who skated for the Hot Dice , Lil' Nasty a " midget " who was a sidekick to Tim Washington and El Numero A masked luchador who skated for the Enforcers.
The most points ever scored in one jam was 28 in Period 3 of a game between the New York Enforcers and the Illinois Riot.
She emerged victorious. A game based on the show was developed by BLAM! But no other trace of information came through about the game being released or canceled without a confirmation.
The video game itself became featured in Rollerjam as a feud, where the game was announced by EA's Steve Sims, around the halftime of the Nevada Hot Dice vs.
New York Enforcers game on March 21, , during Rollerjams 3rd season . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.